Since its debut inRobert Heinlein's novel Starship Troopers has been one of the most popular -- and controversial -- works of science fiction ever published. Written in a few weeks as a response to a proposed nuclear testing moratorium and other issues, it has been interpreted and misinterpreted, praised and excoriated. It recently generated hundreds of "reviews" on the Amazon.
FeaturedSemen Analysis Tags: During a lab test you will deliver your sample to the doctor or lab technician, who will analyze it on a microscope. Following your test you will receive a lab report with your scores. What do these numbers all mean?
If you are planning to schedule a semen analysis, make sure to also read our article on preparing for a semen analysis. Fertility is all about probability. Out of the millions of sperm released into the vagina following sex only a handful even come close to the egg.
Even these few have to be healthy enough to survive long enough in the female body for an egg to show up. So, when trying to conceive, the more healthy sperm you have, the better the odds that one of them will make it alive to the egg.
However, it is important to remember that just one little sperm is all it takes, so even if you have a low count it is possible to get pregnant naturally although with reduced monthly odds. The semen analysis measures a number of parameters that affect the chances of the sperm reaching the egg.
Some of the parameters are indicators of sperm production and health see How Sperm are Made others relate the the quality of the semen and its ability to help sperm along the journey to the egg.
Parameters measured during a semen analysis The World Health Organization WHO has compiled extensive data on each of these parameters for healthy men that were able to conceive following less than 12 months of trying.
It may be reported as the sperm concentration millions of cells per milliliter of semen as well as total count millions of cells in the ejaculate. The total count is calculated by simply multiplying the sperm concentration by the volume of the ejaculate.
Male fertility basically comes down to a numbers game. Of course you really only need one good sperm cell to conceive a child. Thus the higher your sperm count, the more likely you are to successfully conceive. WHO Normal Range 5th — 95th percentile: The percent motility tells you the fraction of your sperm cells that are motile swimming.
Some laboratory reports will break down this category further into sub-categories including rapid progression, slow progression, and forward progression, which quantify the speeds of swimming cells as well as their directionality healthy sperm swim forward.
These parameters are more difficult to quantify and can vary considerably based on the technician performing the analysis. Therefore these more subjective parameters are often ignored by physicians. The important metric to consider is how many of the cells are swimming at all.
An abnormally high ejaculate volume could be a symptom of an infection. Your doctor would likely order additional tests if suspecting that their many be an infection.
Sometimes sperm heads or tails have an abnormal size or aspect ratio.
Sperm cell morphology is typically only measured in cases where the couple is assessing their options for in vitro fertilization IVF.comment: I am a Ph.D. student in public health and am contacting you concerning research on your risk communications principles. I am responding to your interest in having more research done on your risk communication principles as you mentioned in the guestbook post by Knut Tønsberg..
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