A history of the rule of the byzantine and the islamic empires over europe

Destruction of the first Temple. The Greeks generally allowed the Jews to run their state. But, during the rule of the king Antiochus IV, the Temple was desecrated. This brought about the revolt of the Maccabees, who established an independent rule.

A history of the rule of the byzantine and the islamic empires over europe

The successive waves of Turkic migrations had driven unrelated individuals and groups across central… Origins and expansion of the Ottoman state, c. Those nomads, migrating from Central Asia, established themselves as the Seljuq dynasty in Iran and Mesopotamia in the midth century, overwhelmed Byzantium after the Battle of Manzikertand occupied eastern and central Anatolia during the 12th century.

The ghazis fought against the Byzantines and then the Mongols, who invaded Anatolia following the establishment of the Il-Khanid Ilhanid empire in Iran and Mesopotamia in the last half of the 13th century.

With the disintegration of Seljuq power and its replacement by Mongol suzerainty, enforced by direct military occupation of much of eastern Anatolia, independent Turkmen principalities—one of which was led by Osman—emerged in the remainder of Anatolia.

Osman and Orhan Following the final Mongol defeat of the Seljuqs inOsman emerged as prince bey of the border principality that took over Byzantine Bithynia in northwestern Anatolia around Bursacommanding the ghazis against the Byzantines in that area.

Hemmed in on the east by the more powerful Turkmen principality of Germiyan, Osman and his immediate successors concentrated their attacks on Byzantine territories bordering the Bosporus and the Sea of Marmara to the west.

The Ottomans, left as the major Muslim rivals of Byzantium, attracted masses of nomads and urban unemployed who were roaming through the Middle East searching for means to gain their livelihoods and seeking to fulfill their religious desire to expand the territory of Islam.

The Ottomans were able to take advantage of the decay of the Byzantine frontier defense system and the rise of economic, religious, and social discontent in the Byzantine Empire and, beginning under Osman and continuing under his successors Orhan Orkhan, ruled —60 and Murad I —89took over Byzantine territories, first in western Anatolia and then in southeastern Europe.

It was only under Bayezid I — that the wealth and power gained by that initial expansion were used to assimilate the Anatolian Turkish principalities to the east. The Ottomans lacked effective siege equipment, however, and were unable to take the major cities of Bithynia.

Orhan began the military policy, expanded by his successors, of employing Christian mercenary troops, thus lessening his dependence on the nomads. Orhan soon was able to capture the remaining Byzantine towns in northwestern Anatolia: He then moved against his major Turkmen neighbours to the south.

The consequent entry of Ottoman troops into Europe gave them a direct opportunity to see the possibilities for conquest offered by Byzantine decadence. Ottoman raiding parties began to move regularly through Gallipoli into Thrace.

Huge quantities of captured booty strengthened Ottoman power and attracted thousands from the uprooted Turkmen masses of Anatolia into Ottoman service. Cantacuzenus soon fell from power, at least partially because of his cooperation with the Turks, and Europe began to be aware of the extent of the Turkish danger.

Constantinople itself was bypassed, despite the weakness and disorganization of its defenders, because its thick walls and well-placed defenses remained too strong for the nomadic Ottoman army, which continued to lack siege equipment.

Renamed Edirnethe city became the new Ottoman capital, providing the Ottomans with a centre for the administrative and military control of Thrace. As the main fortress between Constantinople and the Danube Riverit controlled the principal invasion road through the Balkan Mountainsassured Ottoman retention of their European conquests, and facilitated further expansion to the north.

The Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus tried to mobilize European assistance by uniting the churches of Constantinople and Romebut that effort only further divided Byzantium without assuring any concrete help from the West. Murad next incorporated into the rapidly expanding empire many European vassal s.

A history of the rule of the byzantine and the islamic empires over europe

He retained local native rulers, who in return accepted his suzerainty, paid annual tributes, and provided contingents for his army when required. That policy enabled the Ottomans generally to avoid local resistance by assuring rulers and subjects that their lives, properties, traditions, and positions would be preserved if they peacefully accepted Ottoman rule.

It also enabled the Ottomans to govern the newly conquered areas without building up a vast administrative system of their own or maintaining substantial occupation garrisons. South of the Danube only WalachiaBosnia, AlbaniaGreeceand the Serbian fort of Belgrade remained outside Ottoman rule, and to the north Hungary alone was in a position to resist further Muslim advances.

Bayezid I Murad was killed during the Battle of Kosovo. In fact, he was compelled to restore the defeated vassals and return to Anatolia. That return was precipitated by the rising threat of the Turkmen principality of Karamancreated on the ruins of the Seljuq empire of Anatolia with its capital at Konya.

They had, however, expanded peacefully through marriage alliances and the purchase of territories. The acquisition of territory in central Anatolia from the emirates of Hamid and Germiyan had brought the Ottomans into direct contact with Karaman for the first time.

Murad had been compelled to take some military action to prevent it from occupying his newly acquired Anatolian territories but then had turned back to Europe, leaving the unsolved problem to his successor son. Bayezid IBayezid I, undated engraving. That opposition strengthened the Balkan Union that was routed by the Ottomans at Kosovo and stimulated a general revolt in Anatolia that Bayezid was forced to meet by an open attack as soon as he was able.

By Bayezid had overwhelmed and annexed all the remaining Turkmen principalities in western Anatolia.UW TACOMA DIVISION OF SOCIAL AND HISTORICAL STDY HISTORY (TACOMA) Detailed course offerings (Time Schedule) are available for.

Summer Quarter ; Autumn Quarter ; T HIST Introduction to History Methods (5) I&S Introduces students to historians' methods for researching and writing, including Chicago style, with a focus on formulating, researching, and writing a history .

This history of the Byzantine Empire covers the history of the Eastern Roman Empire from late antiquity until the Fall of Constantinople in AD.

The Ottoman state to 1481: the age of expansion

Several events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the transitional period during which the Roman Empire's east and west timberdesignmag.com , the emperor Diocletian (r.

–) partitioned the Roman Empire's . The Byzantine Empire. The Roman-Byzantine Period. The Byzantine Empire was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered on the capital of Constantinople, and ruled by emperors in direct succession to the ancient Roman emperors.

The first period of Ottoman history was characterized by almost continuous territorial expansion, during which Ottoman dominion spread out from a small northwestern Anatolian principality to cover most of southeastern Europe and Anatolia.

The political, economic, and social institutions of the. From one point of view South Africans cannot boast about building Axum, KMT, or Timbuktu, because they, as a group, played no role in it.

The only ‘race” in Ancient Egypt that built the pyramids was the Egyptians themselves.

Ancient Rome - HISTORY