Bones and joints

Joints may be classified functionally based upon how much movement they allow.

Bones and joints

Bones and What They Do From our head to our toes, bones provide support for our bodies and help form our shape. The skull protects the brain and forms the shape of our face. The spinal cord, a pathway for messages between the brain and the body, is protected by the backbone, or spinal column.

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The ribs form a cage that shelters the heart, lungs, liver, and spleen, and the pelvis helps protect the bladder, intestines, and in women, the reproductive organs. The human skeleton has bones, which begin to develop before birth.

When the skeleton first forms, it is made of flexible cartilage, but within a few weeks it begins the process of ossification. Ossification is when the cartilage is replaced by hard deposits of calcium phosphate and stretchy collagen, the two main components of bone.

It takes about 20 years for this process to be completed. The bones of kids and young teens are smaller than those of adults and contain "growing zones" called growth plates. These plates consist of columns of multiplying cartilage cells that grow in length, and then change into hard, mineralized bone.

These growth plates are easy to spot on an X-ray. Because girls mature at an earlier age than boys, their growth plates change into hard bone at an earlier age.

Bone contains three types of cells: Osteoclasts are very active in kids and teens, working on bone as it is remodeled during growth.

They also play an important role in the repair of fractures. Bones are made up of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and other minerals, as well as the protein collagen.

Calcium is needed to make bones hard, which allows them to support body weight. The amounts of certain vitamins and minerals that you eat, especially vitamin D and calciumdirectly affects how much calcium is stored in the bones.

The soft bone marrow inside many of the bones is where most of the blood cells are made. White blood cells help the body fight infection. Bones are made up of two types of bone tissues: Compact bone is the solid, hard, outside part of the bone.

Bones and joints

This type of bone makes up the most of the human skeleton. It looks like ivory and is extremely strong. Cancellous bone, which looks like a sponge, is inside the compact bone. It is made up of a mesh-like network of tiny pieces of bone called trabeculae.Joints hold the skeleton together and support movement.

There are two ways to categorize joints. The first is by joint function, also referred to as range of motion. The second way to categorize joints is by the material that holds the bones of the joints together; that is an organization of joints by structure.

The knuckles are joints formed by the bones of the fingers and are commonly injured or dislocated with trauma to the hand. The first and largest knuckle is the junction between the hand and the fingers - the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP). Cartiliginous Joints.

Joints that unite bones with cartilage are called cartilaginous are two types of cartilaginous joints: (1) A synchrondosis is an immovable cartilaginous joint. One example is the joint between the first pair of ribs and the sternum.

The action of the hinge joint is like that of a door hinge and motion is limited to bending and straightening. Our elbows and knees are examples of hinge joints.

pivot (swivel) joint: have a bone with a rounded end fitting into a groove in another bone. Pivot joints allow one bone to pivot on the other bone. Conveniently serving the western communities, including the surrounding areas of Wellington, Royal Palm Beach, Boynton Beach, Palm Beach Gardens, Jupiter, Port Saint Lucie, and Belle Glade, we treat a complete range of orthopedic injuries and problems affecting all parts of the body.

Hinge joints, such as the elbow and knee, limit movement in only one direction so that the angle between bones can increase or decrease at the joint. The limited motion at hinge joints provides for more strength and reinforcement from the bones, muscles, and ligaments that make up the joint.

Bones, Joints and Muscles: MedlinePlus