Maslow's hierarchy explains human behavior in terms of basic requirements for survival and growth.
The base of the motivational order begins with the fundamentals of life. The life-sustaining physiological needs are considered as the most important human needs, which must be met before moving on to higher needs.
It is portrayed with the largest and most fundamental levels of needs at the bottom, and the need for self-actualization at the top.
The lowest level or the base of the pyramid is comprised of the most pivotal needs, and as we continue up the levels, the needs start to seem more complex.
The base of the pyramid start from physiological needs that is vital for survival, such as food, water, warmth and sleep. Once these needs are met, the next level comprises of needs for security and safety. Progressing up the pyramid, the needs start to get more complex.
The third level is social needs that include the need for sense of belonging and love. The need for self-actualization is at the very top of the pyramid. Types of Needs Maslow believed that needs played a major role in motivating behavior. He classified the first four levels of the pyramid, physiological, security, social and esteem needs, as deficiency needs also called D-needs.
Satisfying these needs help to overcome deprivation and avoid unpleasant feelings and consequences.
Likewise, Maslow categorized the highest level of the pyramid as growth needs also called B-needs. Growth needs do not arise because of deprivation, but rather from a desire to grow. Different Levels of the Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Needs Physiological needs are the fundamental requirements for human survival.
Human body cannot survive without meeting these requirements. These requirements include air, water, food and sleep, which are must-haves for metabolic functions of the body. Additionally, sex is also a physiological need, as it is important for the survival of the species. Although not extreme must-haves compared to the vital requirements of human survival, safety needs need to be fulfilled for a person to live without stress and worry.
In the absence of physical safety, like in situations of war and natural disaster and in cases of family violence and childhood abuse etc. Likewise in cases of economic crisis and lack of job opportunities, a person stresses over well being of himself and his family.
Examples of security needs include health care, safe neighborhoods, shelter, insurances, saving accounts and so on. Social Needs; Love and Belonging The third layers of human needs are interpersonal and involve feelings of belongingness, love and affection.
Maslow categorized these needs as less vital than security and physiological needs. Emotional bonds like family, friendship, intimacy and family help to fulfill these needs. These needs are particularly strong during childhood. In a nutshell, loving and being loved by others takes care of these needs.
Esteem Needs Esteem needs include needs for personal respect, self-esteem, social recognition and accomplishment. After all three lower level needs are fulfilled, people need to engage themselves in activities that give them a sense of contribution, to feel self-valued, be it in profession or hobby.
Maslow further categorized esteem needs into two versions, a lower one and a higher one. The lower one is the need for the respect of others, the need for status recognition, fame, prestige and attention.
The higher one is the need for self-respect, competence, need for strength, freedom, independence and self-confidence. The higher version ranks further above than the lower needs.
Deprivation of these needs can lead to weakness and helplessness. Maslow describes this desire as the desire to become more and more of what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming. This is a broad definition of the need for self-actualization, but when applied to individuals the need is specific.While the theories of motivation described earlier relate to basic biological drives, individual characteristics, or social contexts, Abraham Maslow () proposed a hierarchy of needs that spans the spectrum of motives ranging from the biological to the individual to the social.
Maslow's hierarchy specifies the following levels: Physiological needs: These are the basic requirements for human physical survival. They include such essentials as food, water, shelter, oxygen, and sleep. When these needs are unmet, human beings will focus on satisfying them and will ignore higher needs.
The needs in the lower levels need to be met first before the higher levels can be satisfied.
Today Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is still valid in understanding human motivation, management training and personal development (Puckett, ). Maslow’s hierarchy illustrates how ones inner needs motivate one to communicate (Steinberg, 22). Maslow's hierarchy of needs was established in the early 40s by Abraham Harold Maslow ().
The theory behind his hierarchy was based on his article "A Theory of Human Motivation" (), which was reviewed in the 50th issue of the Psychological Review in America.
Figure 1. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is illustrated here. In some versions of the pyramid, cognitive and aesthetic needs are also included between esteem and self-actualization. Others include another tier at the top of the pyramid for self-transcendence. At the base of the pyramid are all of the physiological needs that are necessary for survival.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five-tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. Needs lower down in the hierarchy must be satisfied before individuals can attend to needs higher up.