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West Africa[ edit ] The knowledge of inoculating oneself against smallpox seems to have been known to West Africans, more specifically the Akan. A slave named Onesimus explained the inoculation procedure to Cotton Mather during the 18th century; he reported to have gotten the knowledge from Africa.
The dangers of tobacco smoking were known to African Muslim scholars, based on Timbuktu manuscripts. Ancient Egyptian medicine Ancient Egyptian physicians were renowned in the ancient Near East for their healing skills, and some, like Imhotepremained famous long after their deaths.
Medical papyri show empirical knowledge of anatomy, injuries, and practical treatments. Garlic and onions were used regularly to promote good health and were thought to relieve asthma symptoms. Ancient Egyptian surgeons stitched wounds, set broken bonesand amputated diseased limbs, but they recognized that some injuries were so serious that they could only make the patient comfortable until he died.
Aroundthe ventilator is invented in Egypt. Treatment was given for free to patients of all backgrounds, regardless of gender, ethnicity or income.
The antibiotic was in wide commercial use writing about science and technology in the mid 20th century. The theory is earthen jars containing grain used for making beer contained the bacterium streptomycedeswhich produced tetracycline. Although Nubians were not aware of tetracycline, they could have noticed people fared better by drinking beer.
According to Charlie Bamforth, a professor of biochemistry and brewing science at the University of California, Davis, said "They must have consumed it because it was rather tastier than the grain from which it was derived.
They would have noticed people fared better by consuming this product than they were just consuming the grain itself. Felkin in East Africa[ edit ] European travelers in the Great Lakes region of Africa Uganda and Rwanda during the 19th century reported cases of surgery in the kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara.
One observer noted a "surgical skill which had reached a high standard". From the well-developed nature of the procedures employed, European observers concluded that they had been employed for some time. Trephining was carried out and the bones of depressed fractures were elevated.
Horrible war wounds, even penetrating abdominal and chest wounds were treated with success, even when this involved quite heroic surgery. The first human-to-human heart transplant was performed by South African cardiac surgeon Christiaan Barnard at Groote Schuur Hospital in December See also Hamilton Naki.
During the s, South African Aaron Klug developed crystallographic electron microscopy techniques, in which a sequence of two-dimensional images of crystals taken from different angles are combined to produce three-dimensional images of the target.
Possible remains of domesticated cattle were identified in the Western Desert of Egypt at the sites of Nabta Playa and Bir Kiseiba and were dated to c.
Linguistic evidences suggests that the Ethiopian plow might be the oldest plow in Africa. Genetic evidence points to E. Ethiopians used terraced hillside cultivation for erosion prevention and irrigation. A 19th century European described Yeha: All the surrounding hills have been terraced for cultivation, and present much the same appearance as the hills in Greece and Asia Minor, which have been neglected for centuries; but nowhere in Greece or Asia Minor have I ever seen such an enormous extent of terraced mountains as in this Abyssinian valley.
Hundreds and thousands of acres must here have been under the most careful cultivation, right up almost to the tops of the mountains, and now nothing is left but the regular lines of the sustaining walls, and a few trees dotted about here and there.
This valley is most completely shut in, quite such an one as one can imagine Rasselas to have lived in — James T. Bent, The sacred city of the Ethiopians, being a record of travel and research in Abyssinia in The Sahel and West Africa[ edit ] The earliest evidence for the domestication of plants for agricultural purposes in Africa occurred in the Sahel region c.
Around this time, and in the same region, the small guineafowl was domesticated. Other African domesticated plants were oil palm, raffia palmblack-eyed peasgroundnutsand kola nuts.
Sorghum domesticated in the Sahel African methods of cultivating rice, introduced by enslaved Africans, may have been used in North Carolina. This may have been a factor in the prosperity of the North Carolina colony.
Portuguese observers between the half of the 15th century and the 16th century witnessed the cultivation of rice in the Upper Guinea Coast, and admired the local rice-growing technology, as it involved intensive agricultural practices such as diking and transplanting.
Between and BCE, pearl milletgourdswatermelonsand beans also spread westward across the southern Sahara. Between and BCE knowledge of domesticated sorghum, castor beans, and two species of gourd spread from Africa to Asia. Pearl millet, black-eyed peas, watermelon, and okra later spread to the rest of the world.
Stone channels were used to dike, dam, and level surrounding river waters. The country about Inyanga is well watered, but it would seem that the old inhabitants required a more general distribution of the supply than was afforded by the numerous streams running down from the hills.
The stream was tapped at a point near its source, and part of the water deflected by a stone dam. This gave them a high-level conduit, by which the water could be carried along the side of a hill and allowed to descend more gradually than the parent stream.
There are very many such conduits in the Inyanga region, and they often run for several miles.Write your own winning statement of purpose or sop. Understand what universities expect in a statement of purpose.
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